Aims/hypothesis: Optimal diabetes care and risk factor management are important to delay micro- and macrovascular complications in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Ongoing improvement of management strategies requires the evaluation of target achievement and identification of risk factors in individuals who do (or do not) achieve these targets.

Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected from adults with T1D visiting six diabetes centers in the Netherlands in 2018. Targets were defined as glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) <53 mmol/mol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) <2.6 mmoL/L (no cardiovascular disease [CVD] present) or <1.8 mmoL/L (CVD present), or blood pressure (BP) <140/90 mm Hg. Target achievement was compared for individuals with and without CVD.

Results: Data from 1737 individuals were included. Mean HbA1c was 63 mmol/mol (7.9%), LDL-c was 2.67 mmoL/L, and BP 131/76 mm Hg. In individuals with CVD, 24%, 33%, and 46% achieved HbA1c, LDL-c, and BP targets respectively. In individuals without CVD these percentages were 29%, 54%, and 77%, respectively. Individuals with CVD did not have any significant risk factors for HbA1c, LDL-c, and BP target achievement. In comparison, individuals without CVD were more likely to achieve glycemic targets if they were men and insulin pump users. Smoking, microvascular complications, and the prescription of lipid-lowering and antihypertensive medication were negatively associated with glycemic target achievement. No characteristics were associated with LDL-c target achievement. Microvascular complications and antihypertensive medication prescription were negatively associated with BP target attainment.

Conclusion: Opportunities for improvement of diabetes management exist for the achievement of glycemic, lipid, and BP targets but may differ between individuals with and without CVD.


You can read the full article at